Analogously to the natural selective forces in ecosystems, therapies impose selective pressure on cancer cells within tumors. Some tumor cells can adapt to this stress and are able to form resistant subpopulations, parallel with enrichment of cancer stem cell properties in the residual tumor masses. However, these therapy-resistant cells are unlikely to be sufficient for the fast tumor repopulation and regrowth by themselves. The dynamic and coordinated plasticity of residual tumor cells is essential both for the conversion of their regulatory network and for the stromal microenvironment to produce cancer supporting signals. In this nursing tissue "niche", cancer-associated fibroblasts are known to play crucial roles in developing therapy resistance and survival of residual stem-like cells. As paracrine messengers, extracellular vesicles carrying a wide range of signaling molecules with oncogenic potential, can support the escape of some tumor cells from their deadly fate. Here, we briefly overview how extracellular vesicle signaling between fibroblasts and cancer cells including cancer progenitor/stem cells may contribute to the progression, therapy resistance and recurrence of malignant tumors.